Friday, March 13, 2020
A Critical Study of Sainsburys Managing information systems (MIS) INTRODUCTION: A Critical Study of Sainsburys Managing information systems (MIS) INTRODUCTION:MANAGING INFORMATION SYSTEMS ACROSS VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS IN J.SAINSBURYÃ¢â¬â¢S SUPERMARKET:Information systems in checkouts:Decision making at three tiers of management in SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s:Conclusion:ReferencesRelated INTRODUCTION: Managing information systems (MIS) is a process which provides information to an organization to manage effectively. managing information system(MIS) is a system that combines both the human and computer based resources which can be used to collection of raw data, retrievingÃ data, storing the data, processing the data andÃ converting it in to the information which is able to communicate with all levels of management using the information technology. MIS enables the user/organization to manage things effectively. it provides theÃ base to an organization toÃ make better decisions and to handle critical problems, controlling and coordinatingÃ the organization successfully. Information system is not a option but it is a essential requirement by any organization. it is also the mediator between different levels of management. it plays very important role in organizational level. it also makes easier to communicate each other effectively. it is also updates the information across various levels and gives a chance to rethink of future plans. it gives the external information about other firms to stand in the competitive environment successfully. it is not only a useful tool but it must be included in any organization to run their business. MIS in any organization is supposed to provide information to their customers. MANAGING INFORMATION SYSTEMS ACROSS VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS IN J.SAINSBURYÃ¢â¬â¢S SUPERMARKET: Information systems is very crucial factor to any organization from top level management to employees, manufacturers, suppliers, retailers,Ã marketing analysts,Ã warehouses, supply chain management.. Etc. Based on the information system, an organization management could include planning, organizing, directing, controlling, evaluating and reporting etc.. An information system is the heart of any organization to assess the companies past reviewÃ¢â¬â¢s and performance and to plan the present and future organizational objectives. Information system uses the database to store large amounts of data, statically analyzing the data, and to produce it in to useful information that can be used by various levels of management. Information system is used by the managers of their own departments to identify the critical issues occurred in the past activities, discussing about the issue with the other team members of the department and planned to solve and overcome the problems. Managing information systems in SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s stores:Ã SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s supermarket is the ukÃ¢â¬â¢s largest major food retailing chain.Ã It has 525 supermarkets and 303 convenience stores, a SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s bank. For the big corporate organization like SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s, it is essential requirement to managing information systems in an efficient way. Information systems is used in SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s at various levels of management and various departments. The information systems are used in a supermarket stores at various levels from stock handling controlling to maintain appropriate temperatures in fridges and freezers. In the supermarket stores uses the several computer systems which can be called LAN (LOCAL AREA NETWORK). These computer systems are aims to operate the stock control and checkout systems. These are one that incorporates the functionality of multiple devices. Every authorised person can access these data base systems.Ã In stores, hand held devices are introduced and allow the administration staff, shop floor colleagues and stock control staff to change the price of products and creating price labels, and for future deliveries. The hand held devices are also called shelf edge computers (SEC). Every individual product has unique code to identify the product details; the item has a unique barcode which can be scan by the hand held scanners.Ã Electronic point of sale (EPOS) is a machine located at every checkout. E POS contains a digital display to display , a keyboard, a scanner which can read bar codes, a set of scales, a printer, a debit card reader and a till drawer. All of these components are attached to a till. Each and every item should have a unique code number that is independent of all other product. Even the same product of different sizes needs a unique code to identify the product. The unique bar code numbers are printed on the outside of the product packaging or attached label to that product which is shown in the figure (a) below. Figure (d): hand held system Barcodes are combined with a set of thick black lines and white lines. Ex: Figure(c). Figure (e) : EPOS Information systems in checkouts: The EPOS reads the product barcodes at the checkouts till machine, and identifies the product and it finds the cost of the product, after scanning the product the machine gives an option to the customer whether they have any nectar card, staff discount card, any voucher card. After all it charges the customer appropriately. Each card mentioned above also has barcode on it, and the machine identifies it uniquely. All till machines are connected together with a branch server system via cables. Each and every product information stored in the branch system, it gives the information to tills when it needed. When scanning an item by the scanner the machine sends the product details to the database. So that the server system can identify that how many remaining items of the same product are available in shelves, it gets the information about that particular product such as how many number of items are sold out, how many are left in the shelves, how many product details are totally sold out . After getting the information about all products it stores the information about that product in the database. It helps to identify the number of product are totally sold out, and in out of stock. So the store can order the delivery of that product. Also the system checks that the product has any special offer and it gives discount where it is needed. Each and every product and service related details are stored in the database and it communicates with all the other systems including tills, it exchanges the information at all the times. When scanning the item it tells the customer that it has been read correctly by giving beep sound. If it not gives any sound one can assume that it has not been read correctly. And there is also an option on the screen that without scanning a product, by entering the code number by using the keyboard can identify the product. For example any reduced items that mean the item has short life and store reduced the cost of an item. After billing the cus tomer receives a paper bill which is made by the printer. The printer is attached with every till and it shares the information and prints on a piece of paper. the customers are allowed to pay by cash or debit card. When the customers use the card, he/she is supposed to put the card on the reader, it also use the information system, whether the card is authorised and it is from authorised bank. The card reader shares the information with all associated banks, and assesses the card information and the debit the amount correctly. The processes of using debit cards are called electronic transfer funds. Stock control: the information systems play an important role in stock control in the super market stores. In the process of billing customers it is known to the server that the number of remaining products is available in the store. in fact, there are also some damaged products or expired products are remained on the shelves. Stock fillers dispose the expired one and use the reduced price labels with new barcodes on it , if the product has short life. Stock control department uses the information system, and it orders the products where it is needed, and stores the information about the number of products are delivered to the store when they get the delivery. The price labels are usually placedÃ on the shelves borders, and the stock controllers scans the price labels where it is empty. Stock control is useful asset in finding the stores profit assessment. The assessment is based on the number of products are delivered to the store and number of products are sold out, the number o f the products are damaged, the number of products expired. This is the important information stored in the database by the stock control team. The each computer in the store is linked with branch server system, which is connected with a head branch of a supermarket computer sever. All the database of an individual store is stored in the head office server system. It maintains the chain of computer systems effectively via extranet sources. Extranet is like a internet but, completely private database network and is connected to internet via satellite. It is because of the process of exchanging information and managing information system of all the stores of the SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s stores. SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s head office is located in the heart of city of London. It has the database over nearly eight hundred store branches. Figure (f): branch computer link to headquarters visa satellite. Inter communication between the branch stores to head branch of the store: Every day the individual store sends the information about sales of the stores to main branch, the head branch estimates the number of items needs to be delivered to the store. The head branch also gets an overview of the sales of the individual store, and estimates the performance levels and suggests the improvements to the branch stores. Figure (g) network model Every individual store sends the daily report to the head quarters. Based on the store information head branch database system stores the updated information such as stocks, performance levels, etc.. Using the updated information the head quarters estimates need of improvement levels and stock deliveries to the stores. The information about stock deliveries are communicates with distribution of warehouses via information systems. The warehouse department which has large chunks of ready to deliver material delivers the stock immediately to the required stores. The whole SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s maintain the same price levels and it updates any change of product prices are communicated to the branch stores. The product price changes are affects the branch stores immediately and followed work by the overnight workers. Human resource management information systems: information systems plays very important role in human resource department in any organisation. Maintaining the thousands of employees in a big organisation like SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s is not a simple thing. The HR department uses the information system effectively to employ the staff to their needs and providing them training. SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s HR department in all stores sends the information about new employees that the store employed, the employee details, employee position, contracted hours, employee salaries. SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s HR department uses their website to employ the new staff that they required. The each and every individual store of SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s sends the information about the need of staff resources in their store, the hours of work required, which department require the new staff. The head office then receives the information about all stores vacancies and posts on line at their website. It updates the information day to day as required. The hr department of head office sends the information to IT department in the head office about vacancy details and need to be posted on line. The IT department then receives the data and posted on their websites. It works effectively by the IT department. The IT department designed the website in an easy understandable form. When the candidateÃ¢â¬â¢s checks that there are any vacancies arise, and found their suitable position, they can apply immediately online. The website asks the candidates to register in the recruitment website. The registration in the recruitment website is very easy by following instructions. After registering in the site, they can progress their application. The website stores the candidates registration details and gives them unique id which is useful for the forth communication, the candidates information submitted on the site is very confidential and not known the third person, because of the successful maintenance of the informatio n and database systems. The SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s website allows the number of candidates applying for a given position is set to a limit. So as to reduce the huge applications for the position that they might cause problem to selection department. All these limitations are set by the department by the use of the information systems. The website asks the candidates to attempt an online exam, which is used to tests candidateÃ¢â¬â¢s abilities as a preliminary test. The number of all limited allowed number of candidates attempts the exam and finish their application. The stored database system can get the result of the candidates test details automatically and sends to the HR department. HR department then assesses the candidateÃ¢â¬â¢s ability based on their test further forwards application to progress. All successful candidates information is stored once in the database available to head office hr department. The HR department assigns each successful candidate with a unique id to identify the colleague. Information systems in Accounts department: The HR department maintains the daily report of employees attendance, and their working hours each day and sends the information to accounts department for payrolls. The HR information systems maintains a report of each employees, that the contracted hours of the employees, holiday pay booked by the employees, the salary of the employees, and premium pay of work, bonus of the employees and their eligibility. Every week of the employees details in all individual stores accounts department sends the information to the head office HR department. The head office assesses the information and pays the employees every four weeks based on the information. Online shopping: SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s is also become popular with their internet shopping facility.Ã SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s online shopping is responsibility of each store online department. The online department in the SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s is called STY(SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s to you). SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s supermarket online shopping efficiently works with the support of SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s IT department. The information systems use of this department is more compare to other departments of this organisation. SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s online shopping is easy way for customers to shop their needs by clicking on the computer instead of walking to store and taking the risk of delivery of the goods to their home. It provides the customers a way of easy shopping online, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s website provides the online shopping tool. All and every product that available in the individual store are available in the internet online shopping. The customers are expected to type in their postcode on the site, to find out which store is available nearly to their home. After typing in their postcode, clicking the access button the website tells the customer that the store is available to their home. The database of all postcodes and addresses are stored and processed by the information systems. Based on the customer information, the information system decides that which store is to be take care of the customer needs. When customer shops online and pays by card, the information first stored on the database of head office, then the assigned store. In the store, STY department automatically gets print out of the shopping list. The shopping lists are then stored in to the store database, and assigns the work to online shopping workers. The online shoppers in the STY department picks up all the items by the help of handset systems. The handheld systems are designed shortly for the use of wireless information exchange system. The manager of the STY department assigns the work into handheld systems, then the shoppers get order details one by one. The information about product details and in which aisle it is located is displayed on the handsets. So the shoppers are expected to scan the items and followed to delivery room. The information systems is more important in the department because of it is totally depended on the Information Technology. Decision making at three tiers of management in SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s: There generally three tiers of management in any organisation. (1) top level management, (2) middle level management, (3) low level management. We can understand the management work at different levels by considering one example: When an organization is supposed to launchÃ a new product, various peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement should be included in the project. For an example, SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s supermarket wants to introduce a Ã¢â¬Å"ready to eat sandwichÃ¢â¬ into their stores. This is not a simple thing and cannot be introduced directly into their stores, but various issues should be considered about this product. The sandwich may be a two pieces of bread slices with a cheese and some ingredients on it, it should have different approach than where people can make it on their homes. This should be treated as a advantageous to consumers. SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s is a chain of five hundred thirty five supermarkets and a kind of convenience stores included in it. When this big food retailer wants to add this new product to their stores, a detailed research should have made and should communicate with the different parties using the information systems. From itÃ¢â¬â¢s product design to sales, a unique code must be assigned to each sandwich to specify the details and allocate value to the product. It is clear that the product designer should specify the required ingredients for the product , and should include right percentage of nutrition values, diets, less fat ..etc. the sandwich design, manufacturer, suppliers through stores requires a shared information system to have a good communication between them. The SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s management will create a brief description about the product which the informationÃ shared by the manufacturer. Using of information systems in product life cycle management: product life cycle management is a process of managing a product from its conception Ã through its design, manufacturing, delivering out. Plc gives product details and specifications to companies. Product design: uses the information systems to assess the features of the product and the requirements for manufacturing of that product, needs of the customers. And it also usable by the product control unit to test the quality control and it again stores the details of the product in to database for further use. The stored data can be accessed by the manufacturing unit and companies to assess whether the design is desirable for company requirements. It gives an overview of the product details i.e the cost of the production, the range of products which can be manufactured and this information available to the all authorised required data bases of the company. Manufacturing of the product: Ã In recent years, the increasing of information technology in manufacturing increasing rapidly. Information is used to be at every level of an organization. In the competitive environment, there is need to understand the using of information systems and application of information technology in whole the process. In a process, from the raw material to the finished goods and shipping of the goods , information systems must be used to communicate at all levels. The information is important for money flow i.e payments can be paid out when delivery received to the recipient, information is usable by the manufacturer to buy and pay for the material, paying labour charges..etc. invoice can be issued by the manufacturer for right payments when he receives correct payments for the goods. A majority of manufacturing companies are using multiple computer network systems at their process. It is a challenge for the organizations to integrate the data bases in to their computer systems. Integrating the computer systems and data bases used to be the main priority for these organizations. By integrating these systems, the companies can know the required material, planning , directing and get theÃ knowledge of market position of their system. SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s consists of nearly eight hundred supermarkets and a finance. The head office department is located in the Holborn, the heart of London. It operates the whole SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s by the help of middle level management. We can clearly observe the role of decision making of three tiers of management by the above example. Conclusion: I conclude that the Managing information systems is important at organisational level, to stand in the corporate competitive environment. It is not an option but essential to run big organisation like SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s. However there is no disadvantage of using information systems except system failure, but there is a need to maintain the information system by the effective efficient team of management. It is clear that the managing information systems give good decision making deal to the managers in any organisation. References 1) Management Information Systems 9e T. Lucey, bized.co.uk. 2)Bocij, P. Chaffey, D., (2005) Business Information Systems: Technology, Development and Management in the E-business, Prentice Hall. 3) Chen, S., (2004) Strategic Management of E-business, J Wiley Sons. 4) Laudon Laudon, (2007) Management Information Systems, 10th Edition, Prentice Hall. 5) Clarke Steve (2007); Ã¢â¬ËInformation Systems Strategic Management: an integrated approachÃ¢â¬â¢. ISBN 978-0-415-38187-1; Routledge Printing, Canada 6) Fattahi. R and Ebrahim Afshar (2006), Ã¢â¬ËAdded value of information and information systems: a conceptual approachÃ¢â¬â¢; Library Review Vol. 55 No. 2 7) www.sainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s.co.uk 8) information age journal
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Personal philosophy of leadership - Term Paper Example I am also committed to foster an environment that nurtures positive communication, collaboration and respect among all participants including my peers, families, and healthcare team as a whole. My desire is to give cultural sensitive care services with the understanding that every individual has his or her own worldviews. Excellence: This is the act of generating and executing transformative strategies with bold inspiration. Caring: I understand caring as promotion of hope, healing, and health to an ailing person and their families. There was a time I was put under care of an old man who was suffering diabetes. On one of my daily visits to his hospital room, I found him kissing a younger person than him. I was somehow disturbed, but I remembered my core value in diversity as a nurse leader. I respected his differences, tried not to be discriminative, and cared for him for the common good. I experienced negative leadership when one of my former clients called me and told me that her h usband had an accident. On behalf of the hospital, I sent some flowers to console her. On realizing that I had made a decision of sending flowers to her, the chief executive nurse was furious because I had not consulted him. He was one person who did not allow subordinates to make decisions. 2. In my definition, leadership involves helping other people achieve their potential, being inspirational, and being an advocate for positive change. This is attained through effective and innovative practices.
Monday, February 10, 2020
Japan's postwar economic development - Essay Example Although there are different opinions about the fiscal policies that it has been following, this paper would make a positive evaluation of JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s economic past. Taking in to account the extraordinary economic growth that the nation has accomplished one can state that the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s transformation process was highly appreciable and unparallel to any other nations since the Second World War. As Duss rightly puts it, Ã¢â¬ËThe Japanese model of economic growthÃ¢â¬â¢ has become one of the most discussed topics among scholars and public officials (Duus, 1998, p.17). The economic growth of Japan after the World War II is often termed as a postwar miracle. Number of factors could be considered as the contributing forces behind the miracle including the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ investment. One can notice that it was the innovative economic policy of Japanese government on international trade and industry that paved the way for the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s rapid industrial and economic growth. The commercial and financial burden caused by the war remained a threat to JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s economy. Inflation, poverty, unemployment and related miseries reached their peak soon after the Second World War. The American government under the supervision of the allied powers played a pivotal role in JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s economic recovery. The SCAP (Supreme commander of the allied powers) official with an intention to prevent militarism as well as communism undertook the developmental programs. Military aggression in the Korean cape also boosted the economy in 1950 because the US g overnment contributed huge amount of special procurements for the nation. Today, Japan has become a potential competitor to USA and China with regard to the export of consumer goods and industrial products, and has proved to be one of the leading industrial powers among world nations. The initial target of postwar Japan was to enhance its production capabilities and become a self sufficient economy in
Thursday, January 30, 2020
I Love School Essay Sixteen years after a sixteen-year-old wrote this book, Francis Ford Coppola turned this novel into a movie. The book is a coming-of-age novel, but the movie focuses on the characters loss of innocence. The movie follows the story line very closely. The reader is only told that this story takes place in the southwest, but the movie places it in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in the year 1966. It also changes the conflict from the East Side versus the West side to the northside versus the southside. This minor directional change was probably made due to the relative time proximity to the musical West Side Story, which won the best picture Academy Award in l961. However, as with all movies, character insight that is critical to understanding the story is lost when the format goes from the written word to the screen. Ponyboy is telling us the story, the same as in the book, but the 91-minute film only glosses over many character relationships. With the exception of Ponyboy, the viewer misses out on knowing most of the novels characters. Darry and Soda are relatively minor characters in the movie, and the viewer is given little insight into their lives. The same is true for the rest of the gang, even Dally. Dallys death loses much of its impact because viewers arent able to get to know him. Only the reader is aware of the fact that Dallys gun is unloaded, and the symbolic death of Dally in the spotlight is gone. Johnnys character is also weaker in the movie than the book. Viewers dont see the growth in his character, because they dont know Johnny. Johnnys appreciation for life at the end of his own is barely noted, but it has great impact on Pony in the novel. The whole point of the telling of Ponyboys story is to give meaning to Johnnys death. Johnny had wanted Ponyboy to tell Dally certain truths, and given that Dally is dead, Pony writes this story down for all of the Dallys in the world: Someone should tell their side of the story, and maybe people would understand then and wouldnt be so quick to judge a boy by the amount of hair oil he wore. The movie and book do begin and end with the same lines, the difference being, only readers understand the meaning behind them.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Plato's The Republic and Aristophanes The Birds Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã It is evident, by Plato's The Republic and Aristophanes The Bird's, that one's vision of an ideal state is not the same mystical utopia. Plato's Republic is an well-ordered society that emphasizes the development of the community, which leads to its people believing in this philosophy. Cloudcuckooland, the idea of two lazy Athenians, is an unorganized society that lacks the substance to make it a workable society. I would much rather live in the organized Republic to the unorganized Cloudcuckooland. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The underlying philosophy of the Republic was based on the community and not the individual. There are three classes in The Republic, one no more important than the other. They are the Rulers, Auxiliaries or soldiers, and the rest of the people, such as Merchants, Carpenters, and Laborers. What I especially like, is that the class one belongs to doesn't have to do with the class of your parents, but more with what your aptitudes are. This allows people to do what they are good at which usually translates into people being more productive for the community. To keep this ordered, Plato has set up the Myth of the Metals. The Myth of the Metals states that when people are created they have one of four different types of metals in them. A person who has gold in them is destined to become a Ruler, a person who has silver in them is destined to become an auxiliary, and a person who has iron or bronze in them is destined to become a farmer or another worker. It also adds though that just because one's parents are both made up of iron doesn't mean that their children will be made up of iron, they could turn out to be Rulers with gold in them. This myth is important in keeping the society organized because it gives everyone a role in society, keeps them in place in that role, and lays out the hierarchy of the society. Another way Plato has set up a more productive society, is to get every able bodied person to work, which includes woman. Woman are treated the same as men and go through the same education processes. Plato realizes that men and woman are the same except for a few different organs, so it makes perfectly good sense for them to be working also. Plato's plans for a more productive society go deeper then just getting more people to work, he wants to breed better citizens. To do this, Rulers o... ...re to put any form of these things into their 'society';. With out these things there can be no order in a society because these are things that help keep an ordered society. Without any form of law system one has no need to abide by morals that are considered to pertain to a civilized society. Also with out any form of organized politics Pisthetairos, the ruler of this 'society';, is free to do what ever he wants. This sets up a huge potential for him to become corrupt, as he eventually does, and make Cloudcuckooland a hell. Pisthetairos also has no idea what will happen to Cloudcuckooland if he dies, and I doubt that he cares what would happen. He is content on just making things up as he goes along which is a ticking time bomb. Eventually this 'society'; will fall into the ground because of its lack of order, so for me it was no hard choice to choose the society that is workable over the 'society'; that is destined to crumble. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Republic is a workable, ordered society in which everyone works towards the good of the community. Cloudcuckooland on the other hand, is destined to become a failed society, because it is the creation of a man who's only interest is himself.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
One can`t deny that the interplay between our daily lives and law is pivotal to our existence. Even when we are breathing, Article 21 of our constitution protects us. When we buy some product from a shop, taxes imposed under various laws play a role in determining the cost of that product. These are just few of the various examples that we encounter in our daily life which exhibit the role of law in our everyday lives. But to know what the law is and to understand it, so that we can act accordingly, one needs to have some command over the language. Even in common law countries where we witness unwritten laws, precedents have cardinal place. And to use those precedents appropriately we need to understand the judgments. Also, judges need to use the right words at the right time to convey the real purpose of the precedent. Law and language are inter-related for even language operates on certain laws. We have various rules and laws of grammar, which if broken, would take away the essence of the language. I always had a few questions regarding this topic lingering in my mind. Why is legal language so complicated? How do lawyers twist it according to their advantage? How easy judges find it to interpret the legal jargon? Is there even a need for legalese? How has the language, the law is written in, affected the awareness among people? There are more questions that I await an answer for and this project has given me a great opportunity to look for those answers THE INTERVIEW For the same purpose I interviewed Sri V. Srinivasa Sivaram, Administrative Officer, Andhra Pradesh State Legal Services Authority. Ã¢â¬Å"The National Legal Services Authority (NALSA) has been constituted under the Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987 to provide free Legal Services to the weaker sections of the society and to organize Lok Adalats for amicable settlement of disputes. In every State, State Legal Services Authority has been constituted to give effect to the policies and directions of the NALSA and to give free legal services to the people and conduct Lok Adalats in the State.. Ã¢â¬ With his experience and connect to the local people, I felt he would be able to answers my questions. I thank him for giving his valuable time for me. Here is an excerpt of the interview Q. Sir, you are associated with Andhra Pradesh Legal Services Authority, and many financially distressed people who canÃ¢â¬â¢t afford a lawyer approach you for help. What level of legal awareness do you find amongst these people about their rights and duties especially when the laws and statutes are written in English? A. Since I`m working with the legal service authority for past some time, one thing that I find is that people donÃ¢â¬â¢t come to us because they have some right or a duty. They come to us because they have a problem. It may be related to law or may not be related to law. 90% of the times, we have to find out what the law is with respect to their problem. The people approaching us are not aware if a law can help them and if so, which law. They are aware that if they have a problem and they are approaching legal service authority, then we will help them. Many a times I have spoken to people and asked them Ã¢â¬Å"How did you come to know of legal service? Ã¢â¬ The most common reply is sir, we have been told or we heard it on TV or Radio. After they approach us, we have to find the remedy for them and most importantly look if that remedy is within the four corners of law. They are not aware of the law in that respect. They just have a problem in hand and they come to us, looking for remedy, and asking whether law can help them or not. Q. For many disputes, the local people first approach the district court and then may appeal in higher courts. Do the district courts work in the local language or in English? What is your opinion regarding this. A. With respect to this question, I would like to tell you that both local languages and English are used. If a person is illiterate or he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand English well, especially when you have to conduct a trial, when you ask during chief examination or during cross examination, the local language is the best thing Q. Do the courts give the judgment i. e. s the written judgment in regional language or is the usage of regional language restricted for oral purposes only? A. For the time being, it is totally in English. But the judges are not stopped from using the regional language. For example, one of friends has given a couple of judgments in Telugu also. But doing so is very difficult. The hindrances that they encounter are numerous. When they have to rewrite a c ase law or quote a case from Supreme Court it becomes virtually very difficult to quote it in Telugu.. We also have latin maxims that would be adding to this difficulty. You are right. We cannot quote them in regional language. We may not pass on the meaning properly. If you quote Evidence Act in Hindi or Telugu, I tell you, it will be a nightmare! Although we are very proficient in Hindi and Telugu, on trying to do so, we couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t succeed. Try converting a judgment by Hon`ble Judge Krishna Iyer into your local language or Telugu, it will be a disaster! Even people who are conversant in English find it difficult to understand his judgment. The language is highly complex, full with rhetoric. Many Supreme Court judgments are in such a way that a common man can`t understand it. This also applies to people who are well familiar with English. Until and unless one doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have the knowledge of the legal jargon used, they can`t comprehend it. Q. The laws are basically for the people. But with the complicated language they are written in, a person finds it very difficult to read through them. Do you think there is a need to simplify legal language? A. It is high time that the legal language is simplified. One thing that we see is, for a simple word example may or shall, battles are fought in court. The Supreme Court may end up saying Ã¢â¬ËmayÃ¢â¬â¢ is not Ã¢â¬ËmayÃ¢â¬â¢, it is Ã¢â¬ËshallÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËshallÃ¢â¬â¢ is Ã¢â¬ËmayÃ¢â¬â¢! Because the interpretation of such basic words takes place in different ways, a common man can`t understand it. Yes Sir, I do remember a case Ã¢â¬ËState Of Madhya Pradesh vs Azad Bharat Finance CoÃ¢â¬â¢. Here under an Act, although the District court interpreted the use of word Ã¢â¬ËshallÃ¢â¬â¢ as obligatory, the Supreme Court interpreted it as Ã¢â¬Å" The word Ã¢â¬Ëshall' is not always mandatory; it depends upon the context in which the word occurs and the other circumstances. Ã¢â¬ Yes. We have many other examples. Few years back when a question arose if a written statement has to be filed within 90 days of the amended CPC, it was said that NO although the word used is shall. If this is the fate of the people who know law, then imagine the plight of the common man. Q. I agree with you sir. But if the legal language is simplified, doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t it leaves some loopholes that maybe misused by many? A. Look, even now it is happening. You write one line and the lawyers are bound to pick up loop holes in that one line also. This is so, because we have been taught to do that! Every lawyer tries to use the words according to his own convenience and the benefit of his client. Q. What approach do you adopt while interpretation of any law. Is it a positivist approach strictly based on the language and the words used or you try to look into the history and spirit of the law? A. I prefer to go by the spirit of the law. We donÃ¢â¬â¢t have access to the constitutional debates. In lower courts, when we have to go about finding what is the meaning and the spirit of the law, unless you see the original framework of the law, you donÃ¢â¬â¢t know why it was written. I do remember the case of Ã¢â¬ËBaljeet Singh vs Election Commission Of India And .. Ã¢â¬â¢ Here the petitioner argued that a member of parliament takes an oath to Ã¢â¬Ëmake and subscribeÃ¢â¬â¢ to the constitution of India. Hence the interpretation is that each and every legislator must be literate to understand the India`s constitution. The Supreme Court referred back to the constitutional assembly debate and concluded that literacy was never meant to be an extra qualification to be a member of parliament. The purpose behind such an oath was to promote national unity and not to make literacy a pre-requisite condition. Yes. Sometimes if you donÃ¢â¬â¢t know the intention behind a law, you can`t come to any particular conclusion about its meaning. If you have access, well and good but many lower courts donÃ¢â¬â¢t have access to constitutional debates. An Act or statute may give you two or three lines about its purpose, but if you want to go further you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have access to that thing. So, if there is a conflict you will interpret it in a manner as you feel proper. But certain situations demand interpretation using the strict language rule. This has been played by the higher courts in many ways! And since we say that Supreme Court judgment is the law of the land, we are bound to end up in confusion. Let me put forth one example. A question arose whether a company can be prosecuted or not for criminal actions. The punishment prescribed includes both fine and imprisonment. One interpretation was that since a company is not a real person and you can`t throw it in jail, hence only a fine will be imposed. But the Supreme Court said that since you can`t put the company in jail, you can`t inflict the punishment prescribed in the act, hence the ntire proceeding were quashed. Subsequently, after few months another judgment came, in which another company, I`m not sure but maybe Standard Chartered Bank, relying on the earlier judgment, pleaded for the quashing of the procedures. But this time, it was held that although we can`t put you in jail; you are liable to pay the fine. Another important issue is the way a common man interprets a law is very different. Let me put to you an exampl e I came across. In rural areas, when I spoke to some people, they are aware that there is a law that deals with harassment. But for them, harassment is any kind of harassment. A woman claimed since her husband drinks and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t contribute much for the family, he is harassing me. Technically, you can`t stop a person from drinking. They hold very different perception of the same law. Some lawyers take them for a ride. When such women approach them, they suggest filling a suit under sec498 which deals with dowry harassment! This obviously leads to exploitation as they mint money in spite of knowing that no remedy lies in law. Q. Sir, this situation is dangerous. People may develop wrong perceptions that law can`t help them and may lose faith in the system. DoesnÃ¢â¬â¢t it demand spreading awareness among people. A. You are right. We do take measures to spread some awareness. For example, we have a regular programme on etv in which a judge tries to answer the queries of the people and explain the remedy to them. I came across a group of LGBT. Although they came from a village, they were well aware about sec 377 and were speaking on how it is unconstitutional. Then they told me how a sensitization programme was carried out by an NGO in Telugu. So, laws arenÃ¢â¬â¢t that difficult to understand, if explained properly Q,CLAT[common law admission test] for admission to the National Law schools is conducted in English. Do you think, the exam should be conducted in other regional languages to increase diversity and access? A. You should answer this question better!. Well the entire situation can be summed up in one or two lines. Whether the legal education should be in local language or English? No doubt, the language may act as a barrier. But in a country having about 28 states with different languages, if the Supreme Court has to read from Gujurati to Malayalam, then it would be a nightmare for everybody. The statutes and legislations are in English. An exact translation in any other language is not possible. The exact meaning may be lost. We can`t avoid English. Now, we have got used to a procedure where we use both regional language and English. The legislations are in English, debates, judgments all are in English. As I said, we can`t have literal translation of each and every word. Thus, my point is legal education has to take place in English. But at the same time, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t deny that regional language would prove to be beneficial, but practically, you need legal education in English medium. Q. Finally, how do you as a judge, view the connection between law and language? Do you think the efficiency of a judge or advocate would be affected due to lack of knowledge in a particular language? A. I have come across many people who can put forth extremely strong arguments in regional language. But they would have become better lawyers had they been proficient in English. But you will see, many a times being good in English won`t help you if you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a command over the regional language too. When a client approaches with any problem, you should be able enough to connect with them, so that they can openly discuss the issues at hand with them. You can explain the law to them in their language so that they understand better and discuss the appropriate remedy. Many a times, if you want to cross-examine a witness you need to do that in his local language. If the poor guy is not well versed in English, then he may say something with some different meaning, which obviously you see would land him in trouble. Now-a-days we have technological tools in the Internet that help us to translate. That day I wanted to read an article on mediation which was in a language, I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t familiar with. This translation tool helped me to translate it in English and the contents too were satisfactory. So in the contemporary times, with internet you can remove a lot of disadvantages. CONCLUSION The interview was a interesting one for it helped me broaden my horizons on the general public conceptions of law. Sri V. Srinivasa Sivaram rightly pointed out to me the problems that plagued the system, which never came to my notice before. But since this project is about the relation of law and language, I would like to narrow down on that issue. Most of his answers were convincing. English can`t be entirely avoided. With the diversity in languages that we have, what a statute may mean in one language, would mean something else in the other as literal translation is not possible every time. But this doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean neglecting regional languages. They need to work side-by-side which evidently is witnessed esp. in the working of lower courts. This is so because it is obviously beneficial for public good. All Laws are made for a reason and purpose. They sometimes seek to repair a defect prevalent in the system. So, the courts should move beyond the interplay of words. Legal jargon or legalese needs to be simplified. I would like to quote Mr. Sivaram on this issue. He aptly illustrates why legalese should be restricted. Ã¢â¬Å"One maybe proficient in English, but if they are told to read Physics or Chemistry, then they wont be able to. Law is for the people. It governs and regulates the action and life of the people. Thus, it should be in a way that people can ordinarily understand.
Monday, January 6, 2020
In Rob BlissÃ¢â¬â¢s video Ã¢â¬Å"Homeless Veteran Time-lapse TransformationÃ¢â¬ , Bliss asserts his claim that societyÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of your physical appearance is essential to take control of life and be successful. Rob Bliss takes a creative look at the transformation of Jim Wolf, US Veteran, through his physical transformation. Rob Bliss effectively creates his argument with his character choice for this video. Choosing an older man, who clearly by his status has been through many life experiences, appeals directly to the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s emotions. Although not a child, JimÃ¢â¬â¢s age plays a grand factor in the perception of this video. Looking at Jim at the beginning of the video he looks about the age of 65, seeing someone at this age and in this state breaksÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Bliss effectively uses this mans status as Ã¢â¬Å"United States Army VeteranÃ¢â¬ to his advantage when promoting Degage Ministries. This ministry works with disadvantaged individuals and gives them Ã¢â¬Å"hopeÃ¢â¬ . Degage offers help to all individuals, yet this video doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t show the ordinary person on the street. This video purposefully shows a Veteran to get donations and to Ã¢â¬Å"give a hesitation to those that tune outÃ¢â¬ . Continuing further with BlissÃ¢â¬â¢s argument, Rob Bliss successfully portrays societyÃ¢â¬â¢s identity perception of success. Taking a homeless man, societies throwaway, giving him a pleasant, acceptable hair cut for his age, and dressing him in what would be considered work apparel, then sending him off into the world to better himself. Society says looking like you succeed, is how you succeed. Rob Bliss takes a raggedy man and provides him with a straight path into societyÃ¢â¬â¢s perception. It is such a drastic change from the ragged, dirty man to the better dressed, in control of his life man seen at the end of the video. This again works to BlissÃ¢â¬â¢s and Degage Ministries benefit. It shows that the ministry can actually change this mans life and it accredits Rob Bliss with the production of the video. SocietyÃ¢â¬â¢s perception is essentially glorified in this video. Showing only the physical side of this transformation, Bliss presents the assumption that the physical side of human identity is